Road Log – Stops 1, 2, and 3


 


Mileage 
Int.
Cum.
Description

0.00

0.00

START: Leave Monroeville Park and Ride bus shelter behind Monroeville Mall. Turn left and head toward the Monroeville Expo Mart.

0.40

0.40

Bear right onto Mall Boulevard and get into the right hand lane.

0.20

0.60

Bear right on the entrance ramp to Business US 22 East.

0.05

0.65

Stop sign. Enter traffic on Business US 22 East.

1.80

2.45

Intersection with PA 48. Continue straight ahead on Business 22 East.

0.05

2.50

Entrance to the Pennsylvania Turnpike, I-76 on right. Continue straight ahead on Business 22 East.

0.10

2.60

US 22 East merges with Business US 22 East on the right.

1.20

3.80

Outcrop of the Ames Limestone in the hillside to the left (mostly hidden by the shrubs). This is an excellent locality for collecting Pennsylvanian marine invertebrate fossils.

0.65

4.45

Exit to PA 286. Continue on US 22 East.

0.90

5.35

Landslides are very common along this stretch of US 22 because bedrock is the unstable claystone of the Pittsburgh red beds (Conemaugh Group, Glenshaw Formation).

0.50

5.85

Intersection with Old William Penn Highway (old US 22) at the traffic light. The Brush Creek marine zone, both limestone and shale (Conemaugh Group, Glenshaw Formation), are exposed in the highwall of an excavation for a storage area just beyond the building on the left.

0.05

5.90

Enter Westmoreland County and the Borough of Murrysville.

0.30

6.20

There used to be a historical marker on the right paying tribute to the great Murrysville Gas Well, drilled in 1878. Michael and Obediah Haymaker drilled the great Haymaker well on the Remaley farm near the axis of the Murrysville anticline. The well "blew in" at 34 million cubic feet of gas per day, the largest gas well ever drilled up to that time. There was a great explosion and fire extended 30.5 m (100 ft) into the air. The gas burned for 1½ years before being brought under control. Upon viewing the well, George Westinghouse suggested that the gas could be piped to Pittsburgh to be used in place of coal in the mills. This was the start of the modern natural gas industry in the United States. The marker has been missing for several years. Hopefully it will be replaced when the road construction is completed in Murrysville.

3.00

9.20

Outcrop of a remarkably thick section of the Clarksburg limestone (Conemaugh Group, Casselman Formation) on the right.

0.40

9.60

Outcrop of the Pittsburgh coal (Monongahela Group, Pittsburgh Formation) on the left. The coal was deep mined here at one time, as evidenced by several pieces of mine timber that can be seen sticking out of the hillside and some mine collapse features.

3.55

13.15

Entrance to PA 66, Pennsylvania Turnpike extension, on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.15

13.30

Cross over PA 66.

0.70

14.00

We are passing over Dominion Transmission Company's Oakford Storage field. The pumping facility is on the left. This is one of the largest gas storage operation in Pennsylvania, encompassing more than 5,261 ha (13,000 acres) in Westmoreland County (Follador, 1995). The facility stores gas in the Upper Devonian Murrysville and Fifth sands. It has an ultimate storage capacity of 123,252 MMcf.

2.00

16.00

Intersection with PA 819 in Five Points. Continue on US 22 East.

4.35

20.35

Intersection with US 119. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

1.15

21.50

Intersection with PA 981 in New Alexandria. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

4.50

26.00

Intersection with PA 982. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

3.00

29.00

Enter the Borough of Blairsville.

0.20

29.20

Exit to Truck Route PA 217 on the right. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

0.90

30.10

Cross the Conemaugh River and enter Indiana County.

0.30

30.40

Exit to PA 217 on right. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

0.95

31.35

Coal mine works on the left is the I-22 Processing, Inc. Rt. 22 tipple. I-22 Processing is based in Latrobe, PA.

1.50

32.85

Exit to US 119 North toward Indiana and Punxsutawney on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.45

33.30

We are climbing the northwestern flank of Chestnut Ridge anticline. Roadcuts on left and right expose channel sandstones and floodplain deposits of the Birmingham member (Conemaugh Group, Casselman Formation).

0.15

33.45

Good view of the Homer City Power Plant in the distance on the left. The tallest stack, at 1,216 ft (371 m) tall, is considered the third tallest smoke stack in the world.

3.10

36.55

Crest of Chestnut Ridge, elevation 619 m (2,030 ft).

0.15

36.70

Good view of Laurel Hill anticline in the distance on the right.

0.50

37.20

Smoke stacks and steam from the cooling towers at the Seward Power Plant in the distance on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.15

13.30

Cross over PA 66.

0.70

14.00

We are passing over Dominion Transmission Company's Oakford Storage field. The pumping facility is on the left. This is one of the largest gas storage operation in Pennsylvania, encompassing more than 5,261 ha (13,000 acres) in Westmoreland County (Follador, 1995). The facility stores gas in the Upper Devonian Murrysville and Fifth sands. It has an ultimate storage capacity of 123,252 MMcf.

2.00

16.00

Intersection with PA 819 in Five Points. Continue on US 22 East.

4.35

20.35

Intersection with US 119. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

1.15

21.50

Intersection with PA 981 in New Alexandria. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

4.50

26.00

Intersection with PA 982. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

3.00

29.00

Enter the Borough of Blairsville.

0.20

29.20

Exit to Truck Route PA 217 on the right. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

0.90

30.10

Cross the Conemaugh River and enter Indiana County.

0.30

30.40

Exit to PA 217 on right. Continue on US 22 East and US 119 North.

0.95

31.35

Coal mine works on the left is the I-22 Processing, Inc. Rt. 22 tipple. I-22 Processing is based in Latrobe, PA.

1.50

32.85

Exit to US 119 North toward Indiana and Punxsutawney on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.45

33.30

We are climbing the northwestern flank of Chestnut Ridge anticline. Roadcuts on left and right expose channel sandstones and floodplain deposits of the Birmingham member (Conemaugh Group, Casselman Formation).

0.15

33.45

Good view of the Homer City Power Plant in the distance on the left. The tallest stack, at 113 m (371 ft) tall, is considered the third tallest smoke stack in the world.

3.10

36.55

Crest of Chestnut Ridge, elevation 619 m (2,030 ft).

0.15

36.70

Good view of Laurel Hill anticline in the distance on the right.

0.50

37.20

Smoke stacks and steam from the cooling towers at the Seward Power Plant in the distance on the right.

2.20

39.40

Exit to PA 259 on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

1.60

41.00

Enter the Village of Clyde.

2.45

43.45

Exit to PA 56 on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.95

44.40

Exit to PA 403 on right. Continue straight on US 22 East.

0.50

44.90

Good view of the Conemaugh River gorge through Laurel Hill on the right.

1.20

46.10

Enter the Village of Gas Center.

1.40

47.50

The ridge straight ahead is Laurel Hill.

0.90

48.40

Enter Cambria County.

1.40

49.80

The roadcut on the right exposes sandstones and red beds of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation.

0.70

50.50

Crest of Laurel Hill, elevation 744 m (2,440 ft).

1.10

51.60

Enter the Village of Chickaree.

1.20

52.80

East-dipping beds of Mahoning sandstone (Conemaugh Group, Glenshaw Formation) on the left.

1.45

54.25

Exit to PA 271 on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

4.25

58.50

Exit to US 219 South toward Johnstown and Somerset on the right. Continue on US 22 East and US 219 North.

0.30

58.80

Exit to US 219 North to DuBois and Bradford on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.40

59.20

Intersection with PA 160. Continue on US 22 East.

0.65

59.85

Exit to Ebensburg on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.85

60.70

Good view of Ebensburg on the left.

1.30

62.00

Exit to Old US 22 to Ebensburg and Loretto on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.90

62.90

Good view of Old US 22 on the right.

1.70

64.60

Cross over Old US 22.

0.20

64.80

Exit to PA 164 on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

3.30

68.10

Cross the Conrail Railroad tracks. These tracks follow the path of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which was built in the 1850s.

0.10

68.20

Exit to PA 53 on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

1.90

70.10

Exit to Old US 22 and the Village of Summit on the right. Continue on US 22 East.

0.30

70.40

Cross under Old US 22.

1.30

71.70

Exit to Gallitzin and Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historical Site on the right. We will visit the Historical Site later on this field trip (see Stop 5). Continue on US 22 East.

0.50

72.20

Enter Blair County.

0.10

72.30

Roadcuts on the left expose dark gray shale and sandstone in the lower Glenshaw Formation (Conemaugh Group), probably a shaly section of the Mahoning sandstone.

0.50

72.80

Coal refuse on the right from strip mines in the Lower Kittanning, Lower Freeport, and Upper Freeport coal seams (Pennsylvanian, Allegheny Group) located along the eastern slope of Allegheny Mountain (Glover, 1990). We are descending the front of Allegheny Mountain toward the Ridge and Valley. The valley occupied by US 22 and the Norfolk Southern (Conrail) Railroad tracks (to the left) is Sugar Run Gap.

0.35

73.15

Crossing the New Allegheny Portage Railroad right-of-way.

1.50

74.65

Roadcuts on the right over the next .8 km (0.5 mi) expose massive sandstones of the Lower Mississippian and Upper Devonian Rockwell Formation.

1.80

76.45

Roadcuts on the left expose small patches of red beds of the Upper Devonian Catskill Formation.

0.70

77.15

Roadcuts on the left expose shales and sandstones of the Upper Devonian Foreknobs Formation.

1.40

78.55

Exit to PA 764 and US 22 East toward Hollidaysburg. Continue straight on the expressway.

0.80

79.35

Bear left onto the exit ramp to I-99 and US 220 North toward Altoona.

0.90

80.25

Merge with traffic on I-99 and US 220 North.

0.50

80.75

Good views of Allegheny Mountain, the topographic expression of the Allegheny Front, can be seen to the left across the Logan Valley for the next 29 km (18 mi) of the trip.

1.10

81.85

The small quarry on the right exposes the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone.

0.50

82.35

Exit 31 to Plank Road. Bedrock here is interbedded limestones and shales of the Upper Silurian Wills Creek Formation. Continue on I-99 North.

0.90

83.25

Enter the City of Altoona.

1.60

84.85

Exit 32, PA 36, Frankstown Road. The highway has passed over the red and gray shales of the Upper Silurian Bloomsburg Formation into a sequence of Lower Silurian limestones (Mifflintown Formation), sandstones (Keefer Sandstone), and shale (Rose Hill Shale) that in some areas of Pennsylvania are still called the Clinton Group. A fossiliferous, low-grade iron ore bed occurs in the lower Keefer in this area. Continue on I-99 North

1.20

86.05

Exit 33 to 17th Street. Bedrock here is Lower Silurian Rose Hill Shale. As we proceed north along I-99 the structural complexity in the floor of the Logan Valley to the left increases as a result of faulting (Figures 26 and 27). The Juniata River runs along the Bellwood thrust fault which parallels regional strike (NE-SW). This fault in turn is offset by a series of essentially E-W trending tear faults, turning the floor of the valley into a patchwork quilt of formations .

2.20

88.25

The patches of gray, cobble-sized limestone lining the right side of the highway from this point north are rip-rap used to prevent unstable slope materials from eroding and sliding onto the highway.

5.20

93.45

Exit 39, PA 764 South, to Pinecroft. Bedrock is McKenzie Formation. As we continue north on I-99 we will cross over the Bloomsburg Formation into the Wills Creek.

1.10

94.55

The Lower Silurian Tuscarora Sandstone is exposed at the top of Brush Mountain on the right where the electric transmission lines cross.

1.50

96.05

Exit 41, PA 865 North, to Bellwood. Bedrock here is Wills Creek Formation. Continue north on I-99.

4.30

100.35

Exit 45 to Tipton and Grazierville. Continue on I-99 North.

2.30

102.65

Bear right onto the exit ramp to PA 453 and Tyrone.

0.45

103.10

Turn left at the stop sign.

0.05

103.15

Turn right onto PA 453.

0.35

103.50

Tyrone Borough limits. Entering Tyrone Gap. Refer to Figure 28. The roadcut on the left (northeast) exposes the red shales, siltstones, and sandstones of the Juniata Formation.

0.20

103.70

End of outcrop. The slope probably is underlain by Upper Ordovician Bald Eagle and Reedsville formations.

0.40

104.10

Intersection with PA 550 in Nealmont, type locality of the Ordovician Nealmont Formation (typically considered lowermost Trenton Group). Stay on PA 453 across the Little Juniata River.

0.20

104.30

Tyrone Regional Water Pollution Control facility on left.

0.25

104.55

Note the quarry on the left. This is the Narehood quarry operated by New Enterprise Stone & Limestone Co. Bellefonte and Loysburg through Coburn carbonates are overturned to the northwest.

0.05

104.60

This roadcut exposes 365 m (1,200 ft) of cyclically bedded Bellefonte Formation.

0.20

104.80

The roadcut on the left over next 0.8 km (0.5 mi) exposes Bellefonte, Nittany, and Stonehenge formations. A chert zone within the Bellefonte Formation near the crest of the hill might represent the Knox unconformity in central Pennsylvania.

0.40

105.20

The bridge across the Little Juniata River on the right leads to Honest Hollow, site of the old Keystone lead and zinc mine discussed under Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits. Rocks in the outcrop directly opposite include Stonehenge limestones and Mines dolostones.

0.60

105.80

Notice the red rock on the left. This is Juniata Formation, uppermost Ordovician clastics surrounded by Lower Ordovician and Upper Cambrian carbonates. Where do you think this came from? For a clue, see Figure 28.

0.05

105.85

The road to the left leads to the little village of Birmingham. A bit of historical trivia: Birmingham at one time vied with Harrisburg as the potential capital of Pennsylvania. Had Birmingham won the honors, the state capital would be much more centrally located than it is now. That’s the good news. The bad new is: you can imagine the mess the Department of Transportation, the politicians, and the land developers would have made of the picturesque and geologically unique Little Juniata River watergap (just picture the area with a plethora of six-lane expressways, state office buildings, and malls)!

0.05

105.90

To the left is an old quarry in the Antes Shale, currently being used as a lot for trash hauling equipment.

0.30

106.20

Grier School on left.

0.30

106.50

This roadcut exposes cyclical bedding in the Lower Sandy member of the Upper Cambrian Gatesburg Formation. Wilson (1952) measured 45 m (150 ft) of section in this exposure.

0.25

106.75

The outcrop on the left is the Ore Hill Member of the Gatesburg Formation.

0.10

106.85

The roadcut on the left is an excellent exposure of the Upper Sandy member of the Gatesburg Formation. The Upper Sandy member is lithostratigraphically equivalent to the Rose Run sand of Ohio (although not to the original Rose Run sand of Kentucky which is younger). For addition information see Riley and others (1993).

0.40

107.25

The dirt road to right leads to Shoenberger, former station on Pennsylvania Railroad (now Conrail). Now used by fishermen.

0.05

107.30

PA 453 crosses the Shoenberger fault, an antithetic thrust fault splaying off the Sinking Valley thrust. This fault marks the southeastern end of Cambrian rocks exposed on the Nittany anticline.

0.05

107.35

Roadcut on left exposes Beekmantown rocks. Alternating light and dark Nittany dolostones define, respectively, cyclical supratidal and subtidal deposition over next 0.5 km (0.3 mi).

0.35

107.70

Limestone Road to right leads to Union Furnace quarries in Middle and Upper Ordovician limestones. Bellefonte/Nittany contact in roadcut on left.

0.20

107.90

Bridge over Little Juniata River. Outcrop on southeastern side of bridge is Tea Creek Member of Bellefonte Formation.

0.25

108.15

The parking area to the left is where we will park for Stop 3. We will stop here on the way to Stop 1 if there is anyone joining the field trip at this point.

0.85

109.00

Turn left onto Pemberton Road

0.90

109.90

Cross the North Branch of the Juniata River.

0.05

109.95

Village of Pemberton. Turn right at the stop sign onto SR 4021, Johnson Hill Road. Cross the railroad tracks, and enter the New Enterprise Stone and Lime Co. Union Furnace Quarry.

Stop 1 – The Union Furnace Quarries

Mileage 
Int.
Cum.
Description

0.25

110.20

Return to the stop sign at Pemberton and turn left onto Pemberton Road.

0.05

110.25

Cross the North Branch of the Juniata River.

0.90

111.15

Intersection with PA 453. Continue straight through the intersection and travel east on SR 1013.

1.60

112.75

Sinking Valley Presbyterian Church on the left.

0.10

112.85

Bear left at the intersection onto Arch Spring Road.

0.30

113.15

Enter the Village of Arch Spring. Pull over to the side of the road near the two stone buildings and disembark.

Stop 2 – Arch Spring Farm

Mileage 
Int.
Cum.
Description

2.10

115.25

Turn left onto PA 453.

0.85

116.10

Turn right onto the cindered parking area on the northwest end of the roadcut and disembark.

Stop 3 – Union Furnace Roadcut

Mileage 
Int.
Cum.
Description

2.25

118.35

Village of Birmingham. Continue on PA 453 North.

1.70

120.05

Intersection with PA 550. Continue on PA 453 North.

0.20

120.25

Tyrone Gap

0.40

120.65

Enter Borough of Tyrone.

0.35

121.00

Turn left onto the entrance ramp to I-99 South.

0.10

121.10

Merge with traffic and return to Altoona.

100.05

221.15

Bear right onto the ramp at Exit 28 and merge with traffic on US 22 West. Return to Monroeville.

2.00

223.15

Exit to US 22 West on the right. Continue straight ahead on Business US 22.

0.20

223.35

Turnpike entrance ramp to the right. Continue straight ahead on Business US 22 West.

0.20

223.55

Intersection with PA 48. Continue straight ahead on Business US 22 West.

1.70

225.25

Bear right onto entrance ramp to Monroeville Mall.

0.30

225.55

Pass beneath the Expo Mart.

0.15

225.70

Turn left onto Mall Boulevard.

0.40

226.10

Turn right into the Monroeville Mall Park and Ride. END. Have a safe trip home.